Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the loss of motor neurons, which results in progressive muscle atrophy. The pathology spreads from the initial site of onset to contiguous anatomic regions. Mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been identified in a dominantly inherited form of ALS (ALS-SOD1). A major hallmark of ALS-SOD1 is the abnormal accumulation of conformationally aberrant SOD1 protein (i.e., misfolded SOD1) within motor neurons. Emerging experimental evidence has suggested that misfolded proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases exhibit prion-like properties, i.e., misfolded proteins act as conformational templates that convert normal proteins into a pathogenic form. Possibly as a result of this prion-like self-propagation property, misfolded forms of pathological proteins are considered to accumulate in the central nervous system and cause neurodegeneration. In this article, we review recent evidence for the role of prion-like mechanisms in ALS-SOD1. In particular, we discuss the propensity of misfolded SOD1 to act as a pathological seed, spread between cells, and propagate neuroanatomically.
Many patients present with extremely serious problems such as headache, photophobia, acoustic hyperresponsiveness, severe pain, menstrual disorders, various sleep disorders, and POTS after human papillomavirus vaccination (HPV vaccine). In addition, patients exhibit various neurological symptoms such as movement disorders, walking disturbance, involuntary movement, abnormal sensation, memory disturbance, and so on. However, these symptoms are variable and have been considered to be symptoms of hysteria (somatoform disorder, somatic symptoms). Immunosuppressive treatments were not administered because many cases were considered to be of neurological origin. In such cases, the disease condition is objectively evaluated to diagnose and treat patients with neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the wide–ranging symptoms of the central nervous system include those caused by disseminated autoimmune encephalitis and also symptoms of the peripheral small fibers. Thus, according to the obtained findings, the neurological symptoms caused by HPV vaccination are related to immunological diseases, and not psychogenic diseases. In addition, the cause of misdiagnosis has also been described.
Rather than focusing on adult, teenage or child anime, this paper analyses Soreike! Anpanman, a popular anime for toddlers (1-4 year olds) in Japan. Anpanman, with its prodigious gadgets market, has become a fixture in daily life. Childcare institutions and parents appreciate its "educational features". In this essay, I first analyze Anpanman as a text, defining its value system which earned it such positive acceptance. Second, I indicate what kind of discursive and non-discursive possibilities /limits are implied in its specific hierarchy of values, and how they can be related to the socializing process of infancy.<br> The cartoon series depicts the eternal struggle between the hero Anpanman (Bean Bread-Kid) and the anti-hero Baikinman (Bacteria-Kid). Anpanman is the flying patrolman of the community's order (groupism, food-organic life, work) , while Baikinman is the aggressive threat to it (egoism, germ-mechanical life, leisure). The community, labelled as minna (everybody) and nakayoshi (amicable, chummy) , is the resource of legitimation/delegitimation and inclusion/exclusion of the characters' actions. In actuality, the specific personification of minna's ultimate authority is the only male human character, the always smiling old chef-baker Jamojisan (Uncle Jam). He is the father-creator of Anpanman, the patriarch who retains both the legislative authority and the executive power.<br> I interpret the kid-characters Anpanman and Baikinman as "still unrealised human possibilities" - the positive one necessarily determined by the exclusion of the negative one - and the adult human character Jamojisan as the legitimated, but unilateral realization of these opposing possibilities. Such a value system can be read as a symbolical socializing process proposed to the infant viewer, and has a great similarity to the socializing process children undergo in childcare institutions.<br> Furthermore, in regard to the more general and practical dimension of socialization, due to the limited autonomy of the infant viewer in the access, choice, and use of Anpanman-products, I also point out the necessary interrelation of infants, childcare institutions and parents: this will be the core of my future research.
Emotional state before sleep affects the subsequent sleep onset. The purpose of this study was to investigate how positive/negative emotion before sleep effected hypnagogic state. The movies eliciting positive or negative emotion were presented before sleep. Hypnagogic imagery was recorded as a probe of emotional experience and EEG microstate analysis was used for finding the emotion related EEG activities. The score of emotion ratings for hypnagogic imagery indicated that positive emotion was reported in not only positive condition but also in negative condition. This implied that hypnagogic state might be accompanied by positive emotion. Comparing the appearance of maps obtained from microstate analysis between conditions, the map of right temporal activity was significantly greater in positive condition while the map of the left frontal activity was greater negative condition. These results suggested that the emotion not just in presleep but also in hypnagogic state was involved in sleep onset process.
The distribution of latrines of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, was examined from July 2006 to December 2007 in the Imperial Palace grounds, Tokyo, Japan. The raccoon dog is accustomed to defecate at fixed locations, forming holding latrines; thus the distribution of latrines is a good indicator of their abundance. The results suggest that the latrines are widely scattered in the study site, but are more dense in the Fukiage area, where an old-growth broad-leaved forest is established. The latrine sites are used more frequently from September to December, as the number of fresh feces increased in the autumnal season. To examine the seasonal food changes of the raccoon dogs, 10 pieces of feces from some latrines were collected every month and analyzed the indigestible contents in the sampled feces. The food items identified consisted of animal, plant and man-made materials, suggesting that the raccoon dogs were highly omnivorous. The animal materials found from the feces included mammals (4% of total feces), birds (37%), reptiles (2%), amphibians (3%), insects (95%), chilopods (56%), isopods (2%) and gastropods (12%). Invertebrates were the most abundand food item throughout the year. Three coleopteran families, the Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Scarabaeidae, accounted for a large proportion of the insects and they showed seasonal fluctuations. These suggest that the raccoon dogs fed on them as major animal food resources in the study site, and perhaps the seasonality is related to the temporal changes of availability of the insects. The majority of plant materials found in the feces was a variety of seeds, suggesting that the raccoon dogs fed on berries and fleshy fruits throughout the year. The occurrence of seeds decreased from March to April, which coincided with a low availability of fruits. The seeds found in feces were categorized into three types : (1) the short-term berry type including Prunus (Cerasus) spp., Moms spp., Rubus hirsutus and Machilus thunbergii, which occurred only a short term after their fruiting periods ; (2) the long-term berry type, including Celtis sinensis, Aphananthe aspera and Swida controversa, which occurred continuously for three or more months after the fruiting periods ; (3) the acorn type, including Castanopsis spp., Quercus spp. and Ginkgo biloba, which occurred in early spring (January to April) when the other fruits are scarce. The seasonal change of the three fruit types implies that the raccoon dogs consume the available fruits in relation to the successive fruiting periods. The proportion of artificial materials found in the feces was considerably lower than in previous studies carried out in the suburbs of Tokyo, suggesting that the raccoon dogs in the study site strongly depend on natural foods. Most of the natural food items were native to Japan since the past Edo period. Thus we conclude that the preservation of biodiversity in the Imperial Palace grounds was essential for the re-colonization by the raccoon dogs of the Tokyo metropolitan area after the 1970s.
A large number of Photobacterium phosphoreum (6-7 log/g) was isolated from “tamagoyaki” (a kind of nigirisushi; Japanese food) that had been lumineferous in the dark. The isolates were smeared on the surfaces of sliced “tamagoyakis”. After the incubation at 10°C for 48 hr or at 25°C for 24 hr, the surfaces became luminous. It was indicated that this abnormality of “tamagoyaki” was caused by contamination with and multiplication by P. phosphoreum.On the surface of “tamagoyaki”, the bacteria in an early growth phase in such a small number as 4 log/g luminesced. Furthermore, the luminescence was observed when pieces of squid, boiled prawn or “yakichikuwa” (a kind of food made of fishes) with the bacteria were incubated, but not observed on pickled Japanese gizzard shad. Nevertheless the the bacteria grew on the surface of tuna, but no luminescence was observed on it.The bacteria produced a small amount of histamine on squid and tuna (less than 250μg/g), and their ability to putrefy food seemed to be low.The opitmum concentration of sodium chloride for growth of the bacteria in a medium was 3%, but they grew in food containing sodium chloride less than 0.5%. When sodium chloride in the medium was replaced by potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride or sodium phosphate, the bacteria were still able to grow but unable to grow when replaced by potassium phosphate or sucrose. The bacteria metabolized arginine by arginine decarboxylase but not by arginine dehydrolase.
Various researches highlight that indoor air quality affects performance of workers in offices. Although good indoor air quality improves work performance, it also increases energy consumption. In this study, we achieved a field survey in a real office in order to investigate the relationship between thermal environment, productivity, and energy consumption. In addition to the monitoring of indoor environmental quality and energy consumption, subjective experiments were conducted. In order to evaluate subjective performance, workers and students responded to questionnaires, and to evaluate objective performance, students simulated three types of office works. By calculating room temperature and worker's subjective performance, we demonstrate the correlation between room temperature and worker's performance (R2=0.22, p